Aeson is a real joy to use once you get into the swing of things, but there are some patterns out there that end-users are left to discover for themselves. One of those is how to deal with data that has a lot of instances of the Maybe type.

I've refactored and cleaned up this code, look at the do-over.

See here for the new article

First, a trivial example:

data Filter = AndFilter [Filter] Cache

instance ToJSON Filter where
  toJSON (AndFilter filters cache) =

    -- fmap toJSON over each Filter in the [Filter] of AndFilter  
    object ["and"     .= fmap toJSON filters

           -- (.=) :: ToJSON a => Data.Text.Internal.Text -> a -> Pair
           -- type Pair = (Text, Value)
           -- Value is the Aeson sum type encompassing all possible JSON values.
           , "_cache" .= cache]

Okay, not bad! For other simpler examples also see:

But given a less-nice data-type like:

data SimpleQueryStringQuery =
    { simpleQueryStringQuery             :: QueryString
    , simpleQueryStringField             :: Maybe FieldOrFields
    , simpleQueryStringOperator          :: Maybe BooleanOperator
    , simpleQueryStringAnalyzer          :: Maybe Analyzer
    , simpleQueryStringFlags             :: Maybe [SimpleQueryFlag]
    , simpleQueryStringLowercaseExpanded :: Maybe LowercaseExpanded
    , simpleQueryStringLocale            :: Maybe Locale
    } deriving (Eq, Show)

This is a bit of a mess. There's uncertainty slapped all over the data-type. Only simpleQueryStringQuery of type QueryString is guaranteed to exist. Everything else might be Nothing.

Rather than break out these cases individually, I started using a pattern combining catMaybes and a function I (inadvisedly) named mField.

mField :: (ToJSON a, Functor f) => T.Text -> f a -> f (T.Text, Value)
mField field = fmap ((field .=) . toJSON)

-- alternately
mField :: ToJSON a => T.Text -> Maybe a -> Maybe (T.Text, Value)
mField field = fmap ((field .=) . toJSON)

-- or if I'm feeling a smart-arse (thanks lambdabot)
mField :: ToJSON a => T.Text -> Maybe a -> Maybe (T.Text, Value)
mField = fmap . (. toJSON) . (.=)

-- and a reminder for catMaybes
catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a]

First, an aside. How is catMaybes even possible? We're conflating the possibility of [Nothing, Nothing, ...] with the empty list case []. Anything Just a is kept.

λ> catMaybes [Just 1, Nothing, Just 2]

Okay, so what does our final instance look like?

-- Value is where we want to end up!
instance ToJSON SimpleQueryStringQuery where
  toJSON (SimpleQueryStringQuery sqsQueryString
          sqsFields sqsBoolean sqsAnalyzer
          sqsFlags  sqsLowercaseExpanded sqsLocale) =
    -- type Pair = (T.Text, Value)
    -- object :: [Pair] -> Value
    object conjoined
    where base = [ "query" .= toJSON sqsQueryString ] -- base is just whatever isn't 'Maybe'
          maybeAdd =
            -- the result of catMaybes on the list is [Pair], from [Maybe Pair]
            catMaybes [ mField "fields" sqsFields -- each mField is Maybe Pair
                      , mField "default_operator" sqsBoolean
                      , mField "analyzer" sqsAnalyzer
                      , mField "flags" sqsFlags
                      , mField "lowercase_expanded_terms" sqsLowercaseExpanded
                      , mField "locale" sqsLocale ]
          -- just concatenating two lists of Pair
          conjoined = base ++ maybeAdd

Want to see more? - Check out Bloodhound, the library this code is from